عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Theory of leadership and guardianship is based upon Quranic verses and the traditions of the Prophet (PBUH) and the descendants of Imam Ali (PBUH); this theory can be understood and proved with an inner-religious attitude and it is a rational-epistemological necessity and guarantees the continuation of prophetic mission – which can be logically and clearly explained and defended with an outer-religious approach; this theory is also one of the requirements of ‘innate disposition’ and the inner truth of religious law. Therefore, the theory of leadership and guardianship is a sacred, primary and theologic theory rather than being conventional, secondary and jurisprudential. This theory has ideological, moral and spiritual aspects as well as dimensions related to legal rulings and jurisprudence and these are responsible for the interpretation of religion, defending religious law, performing God’s prescriptions, administering justice and ensuring mental and spiritual guidance; furthermore, leadership and guardianship complete the religion and the bounties of God and are the indication of the true Islam favored by God which is His promise and a divine order; the leader or guardian has the following real qualities: innocence, knowledge of religion, religious rulings, politics and spirituality and he should be appointed and have a high scientific rank. Relying on these, we can make a logical and historical critique of the competing theories like theories of electing, setting up a council, caliphate as political leadership and the lack of proof for tradition of the Imam and the leader. The present paper has attempted to investigate these from logical, historical and sociological perspectives.